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2/2017

Articles

Piotr Pajor

The Poverty and the Power: Duke Boleslaus the Chaste’s Patronage of the Franciscans in 13th-century Lesser Poland

Chudoba a síla. Donace knížete Boleslava Stydlivého a františkáni v Malopolsku ve 13. století

pp. 106–122

The paper examines the duke’s Boleslaus the Chaste’s patronage for the Franciscans and Poor Clares. Boleslaus reigned in duchies of Cracow and Sandomierz between 1243 and 1279. What was his first significant foundation is double male and female monastery in Zawichost which seems to be strictly modeled on the Franciscan and Clarisian monastery in Prague. Boleslaus established a monastery for his sister Salomea who became first polish Poor Clare just the same as Bohemian king Venceslaus I who founded Prague convent for his sister Agnes. Zawichost, endangered by pagan raids, was quickly abandoned by nuns who moved to new monastery in the uninhabited region of the Prądnik Valley near Cracow. New convent received name the Rock of Saint Mary (Lapis Sanctae Marie) because of which this foundation gained a votive meaning. Boleslaus as a child deprived of his throne by duke Konrad of Masovia, sheltered in castle of Skała (the Rock) erected by Silesian ruler Henry the Bearded.Finally duke and his sister were buried in Franciscan church in Cracow. Friars arrived in this city before Boleslaus gained the throne, however in later tradition duke was regarded as founder of the monastery. Contrary to Zawichost and Skała we know no ducal documents for the Cracow monastery. Despite to long discussion on dating and stratification of the church which probably was finished as late as c. 1300, Boleslaus probably had no influence on its shape and choose it as his burial place rather lately.All in all Boleslaus started a tradition of ducal monasteries which was absent in Lesser Poland before his reign. Order of saint Francis which he choose to support was however a new and representing a new kind of piety; special support for mendicants was up to date with similar actions of the rulers of Bohemia and Hungary.

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Helena Čapková

Marginální fenomén, nebo oběť orientalistického klišé? K vzájemným stykům japonských a evropských meziválečných avantgard

Relations between the Japanese and the European Avant-garde in the Interwar Era: A Subject of Marginal Interest or a Victim of Orientalist Cliché?

pp. 123–139

This study focuses on Japanese artists’ experiences with Europe and with the Czechoslovak avant-garde in particular, and it describes the context in which Japanese art was viewed by segments of the public interested in modern contemporary Japanese art. It thus offers an introduction of sorts to a broader but to date marginal subject. The journey to Europe as a return to Japanese tradition would seem an unlikely chapter in the history of the early stages of Japanese modernism — unlikely because Japanese artists themselves, while striving to be modern, saw the West and its art as threatening to engulf them and deprive them of their ‘Japaneseness’ if they took Western influences as their model. They thus subscribed to the stereotypes that characterised Orientalism and remain deeply rooted in Czech society to the present day. The paradoxical experience of expecting to plumb the depths of the avant-garde in Europe but instead going back to Japanese art was not uncommon for Japanese artists, and books and journals record testimony of this provided not just by architects Sutemi Horiguchi (1895–1983), Masami Makino (1903–1983), Chikatada Kurata (1895–1966), but also, for example, by textile artist Michiko Yamawaki (1910–2000), who trained at the Bauhaus. The study offers an analysis of these transnational experiences and attempts to capture how they shaped the work of Japanese artists and principles of education in the field of art and design in interwar Japan. As well as examining direct reciprocal influences between individual artists and art groups, the study looks at the wider interpretations of Japanese and Czechoslovak art and at the changes to these interpretations resulting from historical or political developments. Political influence appears to be particularly evident in collecting and exhibition work, an example of this being the work of Jirohachi Satsuma (1901–1976).

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Daria Kostina

Reflections and Interpretations of Photography and Poster Design in Grigory Musatov’s Paintings in the late 1920s and early 1930s

Reflexe a interpretace fotografie a plakátu v obrazech Grigorije Musatova z konce dvacátých a počátku třicátých let

pp. 140–149

Grigory Musatov (1889–1941) was the Russian émigré artist who left the country in 1920 and spent the rest of his days in Czechoslovakia, mostly in Prague, where he was an active painter and graphic artist. During the last two decades of his life, Musatov’s artistic vision changed several times but relations between his works and different photographic phenomena can be determined at every stage. The article is devoted to the shortest period of Grigory Musatov’s work that lasted approximately from 1928 until 1932. In these years artist got attracted by such relevant to the age themes as the industrial boom, technological advances, and sport. Musatov’s comprehension of these issues popular not only in painting and graphic art but also in photography and poster design was conjugated with the rethinking of the visual features of these mediums. The paper offers an analysis of Grigory Musatov’s paintings as a case of the specific interpretation of the typical narratives and visual characteristics of pictorial photography, modernist photography, pressphoto and poster design by one modern artist.

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Reports

Pavel Brodský – Martina Šumová

K podílu iluminátorů v Bibli Petra Zmrzlíka ze Svojšína

The Participation  of Illuminators of the Bible  of Petr Zmrzlík of Svojšín

pp. 150–160

The three-volume Bible of Mint Master Petr Zmrzlík of Svojšín, dated to 1411–1414, is rich in painted decorations, but up to now in research they have not been evaluated very highly. These opinions do not sufficiently take into account the fact that it is the hand of multiple illuminators of varying skills. The decorations in the Bible have been newly analysed by Markéta Pražáková, who concludes that the decorations are of better quality and are the work of a larger number of illuminators than researchers previously believed. Pražáková argues that it is possible to identify four distinct creative styles in the bible’s illumination work: that of the Master of the Prophecy of Joel, the Master of the Prophecy of Malachi, the Master of the Book of Esther, and the Master of the Book of Psalms, as well as work by other workshop painters. Pražáková’s analysis provides a good starting point for a reappraisal of the decorations in the Zmrzlík’s Bible. It can be agreed that the main illuminator was the Master of the Book of Psalms, and an approach similar to his is evident in the work of another distinct illuminator, who created the decorations for most of the Epistles of Paul. It is also possible to identify within the workshop of the Master of the Book of Psalms contributions to the decorations by the Master of the Prague Exameron and, in particular, contributions by the Master of the Bible of Zikmund of Domažlice. The latter’s work, however, varies so greatly that sometimes it is not certain whether the given illumination was created by him personally or by his workshop. The work attributed to the Master of the Prophecy of Malachi has indeed been correctly identified as his, but not the work attributed to the painter named as the Master of the Prophecy of Joel, as the miniatures that have been attributed to this hypothetical illuminator are so varied that it is impossible that they are the work of one hand. Three of them can be attributed to the Master of the Mandeville Travels, while the remainding are the work of the Master of the Antwerp Bible.

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Michał Dębowski

The Unknown Painting by Petr Jan Brandl in the Parish Church of Saint John the Baptist in Żabów near Pyrzyce

Neznámý obraz Petra Brandla ve farním kostele sv. Jana Křtitele v Żabówě u Pyrzyce

pp. 161–178

It wasn’t until recently, that a great oil on canvas altar paiting, depicting The Baptism of Christ, miraculously preserved in a small village church in Żabów in West Pomarenia Region of Poland, became a subject of separate studies. Its extraordinary artistic value and technological quality encouraged the article’s author to examine its history and shed some light on the matters of authorship and provenance of the painting. The documented history of the painting dates back to not later than 1945, when the piece was placed in its current location. It was presumably moved from the local manor house, destroyed short after the Second World War. Suggestive painting synthesis expressed in the masterful manipulation of light chiaroscuro, a harmonious composition of colour, and finally the perfect conjunction of form and content of the presentation lead to the conclusion, that the origins of this piece of art should be searched for far away from its current location. Complex comparative analysis carried out in the article leave no doubt that the painting from Żabów must be regarded as an original masterpiece of Petr Brandl — one of the greatest painters of the late Baroque period in Central Europe. The discovery of two exact copies, one preserved in St. Anna Church in Javorná (district Klatovy, Czech Republic) and the other of unknown whereabouts, confirms a high position of the painting in the artist’s oeuvre and a prestigious character of the original foundation. 

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Reviews

Jindřich Vybíral

Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann – Catharine Dossin – Béatrice Joyeux-Prunel (edd.), Circulations in the Global History of Art

pp. 179–181

Petr Jindra

Aleš Mudra – Michaela Ottová (edd.), Trans montes Podoby středověkého umění v severozápadních Čechách / Jan Klípa – Michaela Ottová (edd.), Bez hranic. Umění v Krušnohoří mezi gotikou a renesancí

pp. 182–187

Jan Salava

Ondřej Haničák, Renesanční domy moravsko-slezského pomezí. Příspěvek k poznání typologie a formálních aspektů měšťanské obytné architektury 16. a 17. století

pp. 188–190

Zora Wörgötter

Michaela Šeferisová Loudová (ed.), Josef Stern 1716–1775

pp.190–192

Petr Wittlich

Lada Hubatová-Vacková – Tomáš Zapletal (edd.), Gottfried Semper. Věda, průmysl a umění

pp. 193–194

Andreas Nierhaus

Věra Laštovičková, Cizí dům? Architektura českých Němců 1848–1891 / Ein fremdes Haus? Die Architektur der Deutschböhmen 1848–1891

pp. 194–197

Annotations

pp. 198–201

Acquisitions of Art History Sources

pp. 202–206

Česká resumé / English Summaries

pp. 207–211