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6/2016

Articles

Jiří Just – Martina Šárovcová

Bohemian Book Painting in the Early Modern Period in a New Context: An Illuminated Printed Book from the Property of the Bohemian Brethren Priest Vavřinec Orlík 

Česká knižní malba raného novověku v novém kontextu. Iluminovaný tisk z majetku bratrského kněze Vavřince Orlíka 

pp. 462–479

The recent finding of an illuminated Bohemian Brethren printed book provides important knowledge about Bohemian Brethren book culture. The significance of this discovery impacts the wider issue of the use of fine art within the Unitas Fratrum and Bohemian book painting in the Early Modern period. This newly-found exemplar of the Ivančice Hymnal from 1576 comes from the private estate of the Bohemian Brethren priest Vavřinec Orlík (1520–1589). In 1580, Vavřinec Orlík had an illuminated parchment bifolium with his portrait inserted in the printed book which is coloured and gilded throughout. The documented hand-painted exemplars of the Brethren hymnal from 1576 reveal the unexpected use of serial hand painting and gilding of woodcuts in printed books. The existence of serial hand painting and gilding supports the hypothesis about the use of this technique in Brethren workshops, together with their functioning and distribution networks. The painted portrait of Orlík represents a unique example of a personal representation of a Brethren priest within the context of Brethren book culture as individual portraits of members of the Unitas Fratrum are only known to us from more recent commemorative medals.  This newly-discovered portrait suggests that the existence of individual portraits of the Brethren priests was not a unique phenomenon in the milieu of the Unitas Fratrum. Attributing the portrait to Matouš Ornys of Lindperk allows us to analyze the contacts of the Unitas Fratrum with Prague painters. Another important finding is the identification of the artist who carried out the model drawing for the woodcuts in the Ivančice Hymnal from 1576 and several other Brethren printed books from a later period (Matyáš Hutský of Křivoklát). The personalized presentation of the printed book suggests how the unknown book collections of more important members of the Unitas Fratrum may have been composed and how richly they may have been decorated.

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Kateřina Horníčková – Michal Šroněk

Between Documentation, Imagination and Propaganda: Religious Violence in Prints Showing the Plundering of Monasteries in Prague 1611 

Mezi dokumentem, imaginací a propagandou. Náboženské násilí v grafikách zobrazujících plenění klášterů v Praze roku 1611

pp. 480–496

This article focuses on a series of prints that depict attacks on Roman Catholic monasteries in the Prague Old and New Towns and the violence inflicted on monks in connection with the Passau invasion of Prague in 1611. Making use of new cultural and historical approaches that see art works of this type as a medium of communication in the Early Modern Period, they monitor the problem of the authority of the image as a historical source, and the relationship of the image to historical reality. The authors have created a chronological sequence of these propagandist prints, endeavouring to identify their original purpose, the intentions of the potential commissioners, and the context of their reception in a society divided into denominations. These prints are exposed in the text as an instrument of visual manipulation intended to persuade the viewer of a certain interpretation of events, and to be an effective argument in the denominational conflict. The basis of the article is a detailed analysis of the individual prints and their related pictorial sources, and of their visual field and the visual accents that correspond to the intentions and background of those who commissioned them, clearly from a Roman Catholic environment. It is possible to deconstruct from these ‘direct’, ‘documentary’ sources ‘faithfully’ portraying reality – as the prints were previously regarded  –  various motivations on the Catholic side: for example, an attempt to glorify and canonise the murdered monks and to denounce the offenders as heretics, through accentuation on elements of carnival and the visual topoi of blasphemy, as well as a transformation of the lens through which the events are portrayed under the influence of the new visual sensitivity of Catholicism. The authors place these prints in the context of propagandist leaflets with a denominational theme, discussing aspects of the way the image/leaflet functioned as documentation and the authority of an image that relies on an illusion of truth and authentic evidence.

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Pavla Machalíková

‘Whence come these terrible images…’  How 19th Century Bohemia Began to Show  an Interest in Folk Art and Popular Imagery 

„Odkud pocházejí ty hrozné obrázky…“ K počátkům zájmu o lidovou kulturu a lidové výtvarné umění v 19. století v Čechách

pp. 497–515

One outcome of the changes taking place in European art in the late eighteenth century – a period generally described as the onset of Modernity – was a major transformation in the approach to tradition and its acceptance. Traditional artistic considerations extended in a new direction: the consideration of alternatives that, thanks to their otherness and visual freshness, offered a variety of ‘low’ styles. This coming together enabled the sphere of high art to expand into new ways of expression, including inspiration from artistic motifs linked with the countryside and the gradually constructed idea of popular art. This article will, in the course of some commentaries, deal with reflections of this situation in the visual arts in Bohemia. It will aim to set them in the European context and to show the relationships in which the idea of ‘low’ and ‘folk’ was shaped in thinking about the visual arts in the early nineteenth century. Using the examples of Josef Mánes, Josef Führich and Hippolyt Soběslav Pinkas, it will describe how vernacular (folk) art in Bohemia began to be reflected in fine art, and whether and how high art addressed artistic procedures derived from this field as early as the nineteenth century.

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Reports

Ivo Hlobil

Karl IV. ohne Kaiserkrone im Historischen Museum der Stadt Wien

The Sculpture of Charles IV in the Vienna Museum without the Imperial Crown

pp. 516–522

The medieval art exhibit in the Vienna Museum has a set of six monumental stone sculptures from St Stephen’s Cathedral. They depict Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria (1358–1365), his wife Catherine of Bohemia, and their parents. This article looks at the sculpture of Charles IV, who was the most important ruler to sit on the Czech throne. This sculpture in Vienna is not mentioned on the lists that have thus far been made of the portraits of Charles IV. These sculptures have already received considerable attention from Austrian art history, and Antje Kosegarten in 1966 who formulated the generally accepted findings on them. No one, however, has as yet taken note of the fact that the features identifying the crown as the imperial – the arch and the cross above the frontal lily – vanished at some time from the sculpture of Charles IV. That they used to be there is proven by photographs published before 1962. In the 14th century, the arch and the cross on the crowns of emperors and kings in the empire signified the rift between Charles IV and his son-in-law, Rudolf IV. The aspiring Rudolf was to receive the imperial title only in the Austrian lands, seated on a horse, wearing the archducal hat. The hat of Rudolf IV bearing these symbols has not survived, but its appearance in shown in detail in the painted portrait of Rudolf in the Museum of the Archdiocese of Vienna. The question to ask then is why the imperial crown of Charles IV on the sculpture in the Museum of History lost its arch and cross. Neither the literature nor the relevant sources make any mention of this. The details in question no doubt seemed vulgarly oversized to the aesthetic sensibilities of the 20th century. Perhaps the opinion held saw that the cross was not originally a part of the sculpture, that it had been added to the crown by boring holes into the front of the imperial mitre. Nevertheless, it is most likely that what led to the loss of these features from the imperial crown of Charles IV was that the arch was damaged and incomplete in shape. And restoring it was out of the question – in the spirit of the principles put forth by Alois Reigl, imitation versions of architectural and artistic accessories should not be created, especially in the case of the most important works, which the sculpture of the Charles IV in Vienna in many respects is. Even today we would not proceed otherwise. 

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Pavel Brodský – Martina Šumová – Kateřina Lemberková

Kancionál táborský a malíři Ludvík a Kateřina Oberdorferovi 

The Tábor Hymnal and Artists Ludvík and Kateřina Oberdorfer

pp. 523–529

There is a hymnal in the State District Archives in Tábor that has usually been considered to be one manuscript comprised of three volumes. The hymnal is the work of Stanislav Kantor and was commissioned, as surviving inscriptions indicate, for the Literati Brethren at the Church of the Lord’s Conversion on Mount Tabor. Kantor did the decorative work in the manuscripts, where there are a number of ornamental initials that are of poor quality and fluctuating style, which in character resemble the work of an amateur that is not far from folk art. However, the situation is more complicated. In reality this collection of hymns comprises two manuscripts – a two-volume manuscript and a one-volume manuscript. The two-volume hymnal (nos. 183–184), dated 1578–1580, is entirely the work of Stanislav Kantor. The one-volume manuscript (no. 182) is slightly different. . It is dated 1588, which indicates that it is a separate manuscript, albeit the work of the same scribe. This manuscript contains the same ornamentation, but it in addition has figural and heraldic decoration while this work is not outstanding, it is visibly different from that of Stanislav Kantor, and is without question the work of a professional illuminator. Surviving notes in the work indicate that it was the work of illuminator Ludvík Oberdorfer. However, the name of painter Kateřina Oberderfer is also found here and the symbol of the painter’s guild is used twice, which confirms that Kateřina had a hand in the decorations. Archival sources reveal that she became Ludvík Oberdorfer’s wife at a time close to which the manuscript dates from. She died in 1612, which, in line with art-historical analysis, refutes the earlier idea that the figural decorations are a later addition from the 17th century. Though the artistic quality of the work is not very strong, the manuscript is interesting from a cultural-historical perspective, as it was rare to find women actively working as artists in the Czech lands at that time. 

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Hana Tomagová

Die Wiederentdeckung des mittelalterlichen Wasserspeiers aus Goldenkron (Zlatá Koruna) auf Skizzen für die Edition Wiener Bauhütte

A Lost Medieval Gargoyle from the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Zlatá Koruna Rediscovered in Drawings for the Wiener Bauhütte Series

pp. 530–539

In 1884 the former Cistercian monastery and monastery church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Zlatá Koruna was the destination of a study trip for a group of architects at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna on which they were guided by Professor Friedrich von Schmidt (1825–1891). The primary objective of the study trips that Schmidt introduced at the academy in 1861 as part of practical instruction in architectural drawing was to teach students in the field how to survey the state of an object and then to publish the final drawings in a series of publications by Wiener Bauhütte. In two of these pencil drawings that are now in the Graphic Collection at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna Schmidt’s student Andreas Nedelkovits (1858–?), who around the year 1900 was a teacher at the Royal School of Architecture in Vratislav, captured the appearance of one gargoyle from the turn of the 14th century that have now been lost. Based on these drawings and photographs from 1953 this gargoyle can be described as a ‘composite’ gargoyle formed by half a human figure ‘saddled’ by an animal. From a comparison of this animal figure with a similar detail of a gargoyle in the lapidarium of the cathedral in Cologne it is possible to hypothetically identify the type of animal and the circle of styles the gargoyle comes from, which are further evidence of the influence of French post-Classical cathedral architecture in Southern Bohemia. The realistic quality of the depictions in these drawings compared to other, usually idealised, iconographic materials helps significantly in determining the original appearance of details of the Cistercian church that have now been lost, and it also provides insight into the history of the Wiener Bauhütte publications, in which Schmidt’s students published some of their drawings. This resource also demonstrates the significance of the study trips taken by students of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna to study medieval art and architecture in the Czech lands. 

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Interview

Jindřich Vybíral

Year Two Without Centropa: An Interview with Dora Wiebenson

pp. 540–543

Reviews

Jan Zachariáš

Werner Hofmann, Die Schönheit ist eine Linie. 13 Variationen über ein Thema

pp. 544–546

Klára Benešovská

Jiří Fajt – Markus Hörsch – Vladislav Razím (edd.), Křivoklát – Pürglitz. Jagd, Wald, Herrcherrepräsentation

pp. 546–549

Milada Studničková

Ulrike Jenni – Maria Theisen, Mitteleuropäische Schulen IV (ca. 1390–1400). Hofwerkstätten König Wenzels IV.und deren Umkreis

pp. 549–551

Peter Vergo

Monika Faber – Agnes Husslein-Arco (eds), Inspiration Photographie. Von Makart bis Klimt / Agnes Husslein-Arco – Alexander Klee (eds), Sünde und Secession / Sin and Secession. Franz von Stuck in Wien / in Vienna

pp. 552–554

Ondřej Hojda

Therese O’Malley – Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (eds), Modernism and Landscape Architecture, 1890–1940

pp. 555–557

Eva Novotná

Hubert Guzik, Čtyři cesty ke koldomu. Kolektivní bydlení – utopie české architektury 1900–1989

pp. 557–560

Annotations

pp. 561–564

Acquisitions of Art History Sources

pp. 566–567

Česká resumé / English Summaries

pp. 568–573

Obsah LXIV. ročníku Umění/Art / Contents of the 64th Volume of Umění/Art

pp. 574–575