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1/2009

Articles

Zuzana Všetečková

Nástěnné malby v kostele sv. Jana Křtitele v Jindřichově Hradci do konce vlády Lucemburků

Mural Paintings in the Church of St John the Baptist in Jindřichův Hradec under Late Luxemburg Rule

pp. 2-25

In the Presbytery of the Church of St John the Baptist in Jindřichův Hradec there is a painting of the Passion Cycle on the north wall, dating from around 1330, which was probably created in connection with the arrival of the Minorites in Jindřichův Hradec, and the large composition of the Man of Sorrows was probably painted in connection with Arma Christi and the donators. We linked this painting to Jindřich II of Hradec and to Zdeněk of Šternberk, whose coat-of-arms can be seen in front of the kneeling donator. A line of saints is painted on the opposite wall, with Saint Wenceslaus, Saint Adalbert, and recently identified Saint Erasmus - bishop and the patron saint of weavers. To his right the artist painted a scene from the Legend of Saint Dorothy, in which Jesus is seen bringing Theophilus a basket of flowers - the attribute of a saint. The nobility of Hradec venerated Saint Dorothy as their patron saint, and their coat-of-arms contains the cinquefoil. We assume that the painting was made in the third to fourth decades of the 14th century. We know from an inscription that in a chamber in the palace in Hradec there was a painting of the narrative legend of Saint George that had been commissioned by Oldřich III of Hradec and by Herman, a representative of the Teutonic Knights. The monumental figures of twelve apostles along the windows and of the angel announcing Christ's birth to Mary have been dated as originating in the 1360s. Particularly interesting is the Italian architecture framing the figures of the apostles, a close stylistic analogy for which can be found in uncovered paintings in 1983 the church in Spital bei Weitra (Low Austria). We interpreted the isolated scenes of Christ on the Mount of Olives and the Enthroned Madonna on a pillar in the church and the unique Plague Painting with the Virgin Mary the Protector in the cloister. We believe that these three compositions could be the work of painters who were working in the monastery in the 1430s. Robert Šimůnek worked on the symbol of the lords of Myšlín and Prostiboř (coast-of-arms) and on the commemorative inscriptions in the church interior.

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Radka Miltová - Pavel Suchánek

Ceremonial Carriages of the Olomouc Bishops and Prague Archbishops of the 18th Century

Ceremoniální kočáry olomouckých biskupů a pražských arcibiskupů z 18. století

pp. 26-52

The study treats the ceremonial Episcopal carriages in Bohemian and Moravian collections (two today at the castle at Náměšť na Hané, one in the collections of the Archdiocese Museum in Olomouc [Olmütz] and two in the exhibition in Ctěnice). Comparison of the carriages with correspondence and inventories from the period has shed new light on the question of their origin. All three Olomouc Episcopal carriages are connected with the acquisitions of Bishop Ferdinand Julius Troyer, who purchased them for his enthronement: the larger Náměšť carriage of the carosse type from one of the members of the Esterházy family; the Náměšť Berlin of Countess Kinsky; and the largest of the carosses (today in Olomouc). The latter was probably one of the fabulous carriages of the French envoy Louis François Armand du Plessis, Duke de Richelieu. The upholstery, craftwork and painting of all three of Troyer's carriages were altered. The paintings, which have been partially preserved, indicate that a single iconographic conception informed the superb artistry of the commission. (It was the work of Viennese artists, including the chancellor of the academy Michelangelo Unterberger.) Research on the ceremonial carosse of the Prague archbishops has also yielded new information, in particular a connection with the Bishop of Litoměřice (Leitmeritz), Moritz Adolf Karl Duke of Sachsen-Zeits. He used the luxurious carriage during his enthronement in December 1733. Detailed study of the bishops' inventories, descriptions of ceremonial entries and the carriages has provided a much more detailed picture of the history of the carriages. It has also helped to uncover the specific representational strategies of the people who commissioned the carriages. Analysis of the enthronement ceremonies in Prague and Olomouc has revealed some small differences against the backdrop of a common, secularised form of the rite. The secular tone of these events is also underlined by the iconography of the paintings, which commemorate the bishops' patronage of their fiefs and extol the virtues of those who commissioned the carriages.

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Richard Kurdiovsky

"Einfach nur die zweite Reihe?" - Leben und Werk des Wiener Architekten Alfred Castelliz (1870-1940)

Just 'Second Rate'? - The Life and Works of the Viennese Architect Alfred Castelliz (1870-1940)

pp. 53-73

Alfred Castelliz, born in Celje in 1870, studied at the Academy of Fine Art in Vienna under such diverse teachers as Friedrich Schmidt and Otto Wagner. Both had an influence on his style during his studies and even in his first independent works: Castelliz drew consciously on a repertoire of historical forms and employed Secessionist decorative elements, and on residential structures he even emulated the ideas of a 'homeland' folk style (Heimatstil). In 1903, Castelliz was already functioning as substitute head of the orphaned school of architecture of Viktor Luntz at the Vienna Academy where he repeatedly stood in for his father-in-law Georg Niemann at lectures and until 1924 taught at many educational institutions, such as the Vienna State Craft School. His winning project, ultimately never built, for the chapel of Salzburg's city cemetery from 1903 and 1905 brought him great recognition but little of the longed for professional success as an independent architect, and he did not even obtain a professorship at the Vienna Academy, which is evidently why he publish his thoughts on the theory of architecture in 1912 in a book accompanied by work by his students. Some stylistic influences on Castelliz's mature work can be detected in the spa halls he designed in Velké Losiny in North Moravia, dating from 1930-1931. Alongside the remarkable affinity of his work with that of his contemporary Josef Hoffmann, which incorporates borrowed elements from typical regional folklore, and in addition to its links to Gothic Expressionism, Castelliz's work shares a Neoclassical undertone with the work of his friend Jože Plečnik. Alfred Castelliz ranks among the 'second-rate' architects, whose work facilitates a better understanding of the history of Central European architecture of the early 20th century, in all its often disparate complexity. However, it was he that put man at the centre of creative focus. Man is supposed to use architecture and fill it with life, an idea he demonstrated in an exemplary fashion in his last large work - the children's pavilion 'Chaloupka' in Velké Losiny, exhibiting a sheer delight in decoration and a sensitivity for human dimensions.

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Vendula Hnídková

Rondokubismus versus národní styl

Rondocubism versus the National Style

pp. 74-84

There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

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Shorter notices

Petr Pavelec

Středověké nástěnné malby v bývalé Prelatuře čp. 155 v Českém Krumlově

Mediaeval Mural Painting in the Former Prelacy No. 155 in Český Krumlov

pp. 85-92

The Prelacy in Český Krumlov was built around the mid-14th century, and over time it underwent repeated structural renovations. During renovations executed in 2002-2004, mediaeval mural paintings were uncovered and restored in the large hall of the building´s south wing. Two layers of paintings fading into one another were preserved. The older one dated between 1350 and 1380 includes a depiction of Christ on the cross, the ornamental borders of architectural elements, and heraldic motifs. The later painting layer preserved, with just minor modifications, a picture of the Crucifixion and noticeably also part of the ornamental borders from the older layer. New is the painted drapery in the lower part of the south wall and figures of St Catherine, the Assumption, and St Apollonia above. In the centre part of the western wall a modified image of Crucifixion dating from the earlier layer occupies a prominent position. To the left there is a fragment of a painting of an arbor consanguinitatis (tree of blood relationships) and on the right is an arbor affinitatis (tree of relationships by marriage). On the far right there is a fragment of a painted coat-of-arms bearing the red Rožmberk (Rosenberg) rose. On the north wall a painting of the personification of Death has survived. The northern wall is decorated with the figure of St Barbora, only the torso of which has survived, and noticeably also another female or male saint, of which only a fragment of the aureole survived. An exceptionally valuable part of this layer are the paintings of the relationships trees, which are unparalleled works in Czech mural painting. Their formal conception derives from the morphology of diagrams found in incunabula and old prints at the end of the 15th century, such as in Johann Andreas's well-known treatise Lectura super arboribus consanguinitatis et affinitatis. Several editions of old prints with this treatise, along with illustrations of these relationships trees, survived in the former Krumlov library of the House of Rožmberk and in the Chaplain's library in Krumlov, and it is possible to assume that some of these illustrations may have served as the model for the painting in the large hall of the Prelacy.

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Reviews

Giulia Bartrum

Alena Volrábová (ed.), Wenceslaus Hollar 1607-1677 and Europe Between Life and Desolation

pp. 93-94

Radim Vondráček

Jiří Šerých, Michael Rentz fecit. Michael Jindřich Rentz, dvorní rytec hraběte Šporka

pp. 94-97

Ondřej Hojda

Georges Didi-Huberman, La ressemblance par contact. Archéologie, anachronisme et modernité de l'empreinte

pp. 97-99

Martin Horáček

John Onians, Neuroarthistory: From Aristotle and Pliny to Baxandall and Zeki

pp. 100-102

Annotations

pp. 103-105 

Acquisitions of Art History Sources

pp. 106-108 

Česká resumé / English Summaries

pp. 109-113 

Zásady úpravy textů v časopise Umění / Editing Principles for Publications in Umění/Art

pp. 114-115