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3/2019

Články

Achim Timmermann

Of Trees and Shrines in Sixteenth-Century Transalpine Europe

O stromech a posvátných místech v záalpské Evropě 16. století

pp. 150–167

The article explores the conceptual and experiential ramifications of the interplay between two categories of roadside markers, Baumbilder and Bildstöcke (‘image postsʼ), and imagined or real arboreal and vegetal environments in the south German lands of the early sixteenth century. The discussion revolves around two types of objects: firstly, contemporary depictions of landscapes in which wayside shrines are portrayed as adjuncts, emanations, and even natural products of the forest; and secondly, a number of Bildstöcke which still survive in situ and which, though carved from stone, were given markedly dendritic features in the form of roughly-hewn tree trunks, lopped-off branches, and bound-together vines. If considered together, the shrine-tree landscapes that existed only in pictorial space and those that inhabited solely the physical space of the viewer generated what may be called a common experiential horizon in which religion and nature were extensions rather than antipodes of one another.

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Ingrid Halászová

Ars magica sive utilitas?’ Reflections on the Magical and Pragmatic Aspects of the Power of Portraits in Early Modern Times

Ars magica sive utilitas?’ Úvahy o magických a pragmatických aspektech moci portrétu v raném novověku

pp. 168–183

Given the overabundance of portraiture in the modern age, it is somewhat difficult to place ourselves mentally into a position from which we can consider the domestication of this genre. The magical appeal and effects of immediacy which portraits exerted on viewers in the 16th and also for much of the 17th century were very similar to those which were evoked by images from the ‘pre-art’ era and which to a certain extent remain attributes of the portrait-image to the present day. The reins of this potentially magical power of the portrait-image were held in the hands of the artist under the condition that he combine his mental and manual creative abilities to transform three dimensional reality into a two dimensional painted image. A suitably talented and skilled artist was able to achieve not only an unmistakable visual likeness (similitudo) of the image to its subject, but also to evoke the illusion of immediacy (praesentia) and charm from recognition (identificatio). From the perspective of the anthropology of images, the portrait can both ‘pacify’ death and also activate power in the sense of dominating others through ‘imagery politics’, for example in the iconography of official state portraits. A not insignificant role is also played by the spontaneity of memory, that archaic and thus fleetingly intermittent aspect of natural human recollection, which allows portraits to serve as specific places of memory. In considering the pragmatic reasons for the striking success of the portrait in the early modern period it is necessary to pay particular attention to the cultural meaning and social function associated with the form. Portraits found their functional role in a variety of ritual ceremonies connected with both the private and public-official spheres, both in situations of everyday life and of special occasions. They emerged in connection with the birth (with baptism) and death (with the funeral) of an individual, with marriage but also with widowhood; serving as a memento of the fleeting nature of beauty and youth but also as a symbol of the fulfilment of familial, professional, financial and power ambitions and, for example, of idealized heroic ambitions. In other cases, por- traits function as ‘proof ’ of the subjects’ own importance and family pedigree, of friendship and family connections, of contacts with the world of famous and powerful people and, by no means least, of their own political loyalties.

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Barbara Hodásová

Narratives of Adversity or Microhistories of Success? The case of Jesuits in Banská Bystrica

Příběhy o protivenství nebo mikrohistorie úspěchu? Případ jezuitů v Banské Bystrici

pp. 184–214

A book from the Anglo-American environment by the respected Canadian historian Paul Shore with the title Narratives of Adversity: Jesuits in the Eastern Peripheries of the Habsburg Realms (1640–1773) can be regarded as the starting point for this study. The book made a significant impact on the academic community, especially in the English-speaking countries. Shore’s work presents a narrative of the activity of the Society of Jesus in the former Kingdom of Hungary during the Early Modern period, and is based mainly on the stories of specific members of the order, or minor stories and curiosities, especially ’in the peripheries of the Habsburg Realms’. Since I very strongly disagree with the concept of Paul Shore’s work, the study is an attempt to create a parallel narrative on the activities of the Society of Jesus in Banská Bystrica (German Neusohl, Latin Neosolium, Hungarian Besztercebánya) in the period 1648–1773. The sources for this concept were detailed research on the textual sources both in local archives and in the Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu Roma, as well as investigation of the surviving visual works from the categories of fine art and architecture. Such a concentrated view and the partially uncovered realities of the activities of the Society of Jesus in Banská Bystrica made Paul Shore’s articulated and constantly mentioned ’Eastern peripheries of the Habsburg realms’ and the adversities of members of the order look ever more indefensible. Various visual traces of the activities of the Jesuits in Banská Bystrica can be described as significant Baroque works created in the international Central European framework thanks to various patrons from various European regions. They undoubtedly represent the successful construction of a Central European Baroque sacred landscape and the visual identity of the Catholic area of the Habsburg Monarchy.

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Zprávy

Jan Klípa

The Enthroned Madonna from Dijon. A Recently Discovered Painting from the Workshop of the Master of the Vyšší Brod Altarpiece

Trůnící madona z Dijonu. Nově nalezený obraz z dílny Mistra vyšebrodského oltáře

pp. 215–225

At the end of 2018, a small panel painting of an Enthroned Madonna from the private property of a family living near Dijon appeared in an antique shop in Paris. Based on style and comparative analysis, the painting can be incorporated into the oeuvre of the Prague workshop of the Master of the Vyšší Brod Altarpiece, and its execution can be dated to approximately the mid-1350s. Formally closest to this painting are the Madonna of Rome and the Karlsruhe Diptych, and — like in the case of these two panels — the Dijon Madonna had probably also formed a diptych. Yet numerous convincing formal parallels also point to other works by the aforesaid Master and his wider workshop circle.The extant panel is slightly trimmed and its background is repainted with a coarse, monochrome coat of paint with pasted paper stars. However, X-ray and infrared images have revealed under the repainted layer a well-preserved painting of rich aedicule architecture of the Virgin’s throne, whose closest parallel is perhaps the architecture of the prison of Saint Mark in one of the scenes of the so-called Pala Feriale. This panel was commissioned in the workshop of Paolo Veneziano in 1345 as a cover for the famous Pala d’Oro altarpiece. An Italian inspiration is indicated by the motif of the Christ Child holding his foot with his hand and turning it outward so as to show the sole of the foot — a motif hitherto unregistered in Bohemian panel painting of the 14th century. This feature appeared in Tuscan painting as early as the first half of the 14th century, but reached its greatest popularity only in the work of Barnaba da Modena. Another unusual motif is the blue, rather than gold, halo of the Virgin Mary. Coloured haloes are frequently seen in book illumination of the early Middle Ages. In the Bohemian milieu of the 14th century, they have been also known so far only in miniature painting (Breviary of the Provost Vítek, Klosterneuburg Missal). The recently discovered panel complements the production of the Master of the Vyšší Brod Altarpiece and his circle with the motif of an Enthroned Madonna executed in a size that corresponded to works intended for private devotion (which thus makes it a pendant to the lavish and much more monumental Enthroned Madonna of Kłodzko). To date, the incidence of this type has been attested to only by the later paintings of the Enthroned Madonna of Görlitz and the now-missing panel from Koenigsberg.

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Anna-Victoria Bognár

Neuentdeckte Quellen zum Wirken Balthasar Neumanns in Ellwangen. Die Planungsabläufe für das ehemalige Stiftsrathaus und das ehemalige Priesterseminar auf dem Schönenberg

Plány Balthasara Neumanna pro kolegiátní radnici a kněžský seminář na Schönenbergu v Ellwangenu

pp. 226–238

This article deals with the work and inventions of Balthasar Neumann for his purchaser, the princely provost of Ellwangen. Rediscovered letters and plans in the Staatsarchiv Ludwigsburg prove the thesis of art historical research that he was the main inventor of the new town hall. They also document clearly that he was the sole planner of the seminary on the Schönenberg. The local building administrator Arnold Friedrich Prahl thus only shines up as a construction manager and general foreman. In his plans, Neumann referred to his typical system of invention and social classification of buildings. This means, that the complexity of the structure of the facades referred to the rank of their owner or resident. Hence, the facade of the town hall in Ellwangen is comparable to the facade of the ‘Dikasterialgebäude’ in Ehrenbreitstein near Koblenz and the facade of the seminary is comparable to the monastery of Heidingsfeld in Frankonia. As the architect Neumann often let his assistants plan the decor, he allowed the building manager Prahl to realise some details to his taste. Prahl otherwise feared the juristic and financial consequences of aberation of major structures.

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Recenze

Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann

Taťána Petrasová — Rostislav Švácha (edd.), Art in the Czech Lands 800–2000

pp. 239–242

Aleš Mudra

Katarína Vošková (ed.), Kostol sv. Kataríny v Banskej Štiavnici

pp. 243–245

Andrzej Kozieł

Zuzana Macurová — Lenka Stolárová — Vít Vlnas (edd.), Tváří v tvář. Barokní portrét v zemích Koruny české

pp. 246–249

Tomáš Winter

Bernard Vere, Sport and Modernism in the Visual Arts in Europe, ca. 1909–1939

pp. 249–251

Jindřich Toman

Markéta Svobodová, The Bauhaus and Czechoslovakia, 1919–1938: Students, Concepts, Contacts

pp. 251–254

Annotations

Acquisitions of Art History Sources

Česká resumé / English Summaries