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Mateusz Grzęda

Façade of the House at the Stone Bell and a new Paradigm of Representation

Průčelí domu U Kamenného zvonu a nový typ reprezentace

pp. 214–225

The paper discusses possible sources of inspiration for the sculptural decoration of the façade of the House at the Stone Bell in Prague, that is the figures of a king and queen seated on thrones and accompanied by two standing men-at-arms. The sculptural ensemble, created with all probability ca. 1310–1315, is associated with the actual Bohemian royal couple — John of Luxemburg and Elizabeth of Přemyslid shown together with two armed men, thus evoking rituals of their appearance in public. What is astonishing here, is a bold decision of exhibiting the statues of the king and queen directly before the eyes of their subjects; rather than appeal to traditional, ecclesiastical justifications for the use of images, this sculptural program set sovereigns’ representations in distinctly public space. This makes it close in character to sculpted ensembles founded in Paris by members of the French royal family from the Capetian dynasty, and especially by Philip IV the Fair. The article states that the concept of the façade in question results from a new — burgeoning in Capetian France — paradigm of representation in which those who shared in sacral kingship could be represented by sculpted, three-dimensional images not only due to strictly religious motivations but also institutional ones.

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Dobrosława Horzela

Opus punctile and Stained Glass around 1400

Opus punctile a vitráže kolem roku 1400

pp. 226–243

Among other painting techniques, stained glass is exceptional because the image created using pieces of glass, lead cames and glass paint ‘comes to life’ only when it is seen in transmitted light. This changeability of perception, common to stained glass and goldsmith, was perhaps the source of a unique idea to use the effects characteristic of the opus punctile technique in a stained-glass panel depicting St Mary Magdalene originally from one of the chapels of the Dominican church in Cracow (ca. 1400; National Museum in Cracow). What is of particular interest in this panel it is its background. The originally sapphire-blue glass was covered with an even layer of glass paint, i.e. washed, and then a pattern was scraped away in this layer with a very fine scratching instrument. The pattern is in the form of dynamically bending foliate stem. Within this tangled vegetation, fantastic birds appear. Relieving counts among the most popular techniques in the tradition of stained-glass production, but what makes the Cracow panel unique is the fact that the pattern was worked out exclusively using extremely thin, delicate ‘negative’ line which — depending on the lighting — creates the effect of appearance or disappearance of forms (plants and birds). A search for a solution similar to the one used in the St Mary Magdalene panel in other centres of stained-glass production, be it in Central or Western Europe, yielded no results. Although, as far as separate motifs (fantastic birds) are concerned, there may have been a few potential sources of inspiration (textiles, manuscripts), the works executed in the goldsmiths’ technique of opus punctile seem to be the most probable source of idea — both with regard to the effect on the viewer or the mode of perception and to the motifs themselves as well. The solutions characteristic of the most sophisticated court art from around 1400, arrived in Cracow, most likely, precisely through Prague. The Cracow panel is not simply an imitation of the effect of opus punctile, but its emulation, achieved using completely different means available to the vitreator, the idea of the design ‘emerging from the light’ was freely translated and executed in blue glass. Although the emulatio as an art term belongs to sixteenth-century art theory, the phenomenon of emulation itself was already present in medieval art practice.

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Tomáš Murár

Nighthawks in The Age of Anxiety. Interpretation of the painting by Edward Hopper by means of the ‘Baroque eclogue’ of Wystan Hugh Auden

Noční dravci v Době úzkosti. Interpretace obrazu Edwarda Hoppera „barokní eklogou“ Wystana Hugha Audena

pp. 244–261

This article deals with the interpretation of the painting by American artist Edward Hopper (1882–1967), Nighthawks, from 1942, this being carried out through the poem of Wystan Hugh Auden (1907–1973) The Age of Anxiety. A Baroque Eclogue from 1947. The basic premise of the article is the similarity of the two works of art, which came into being at the same time and in the same place, which means in the first half of the 1940s in the USA. Both Hopper and Auden selected the same artistic motif, a night bar with a foursome of protagonists, who meet in the midst of war and seek an escape from the outside world of wartime chaos. The paper traces the possibilities of the interpretation of Hopper’s iconic painting through Auden’s poem and also in the context of the contemporary ideas of Alfred Schütz (1899–1959) and Jean Gebser (1905–1973), who were thinking, at the time in which Nighthawks and The Age of Anxiety came into being, about the possibilities of the pervasion of individual separate realities and about the eternally continuing present of the period of the 1930s and 1940s. The study by the interpretation of Nighthawks in The Age of Anxiety traces possible ‚cracks‘ in the tradition of American painting through the method of investigating an independent (artistic) time and space created in the researched artworks.

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Peter Megyeši

„Et benedictus fructus ventris tui.“ K ikonografii Navštívení ve středověkých nástěnných malbách v Ochtinej a Koceľovciach 

‘Et benedictus fructus ventris tui’. The Iconography of the Visitation in the Medieval Wall Paintings in Ochtiná and Koceľovce

pp. 262–268

The medieval wall paintings in the churches in Ochtiná (Ochtina/Martonháza) and Koceľovce (Gecelfalva) in Slovakia have been the subject of sustained interest from art historians since the end of the 19th century, when they were discovered, uncovered, and written on by István Gróh. The wall paintings were later studied by Hungarian, Czech, and Slovak art historians: Dénes Radocsay, Mária Prokopp, Vlasta Dvořáková, Milan Togner, Katarína Biathová, Ján Bakoš and Ivan Gerát. This article focuses on the depiction of foetuses in the Visitation scenes, an element of the paintings that has thus far been overlooked. Among the authors cited above only István Gróh, in 1895, noticed this when describing the wall paintings in Koceľovce. The foetuses of Jesus and John the Baptist are also depicted in a wall painting preserved in nearby Ochtiná. The paintings in Ochtiná and Koceľovce (dating from 1377–1400) are among the earliest of the known and documented examples of foetus type Visitation scenes in wall paintings (Rhäzüns in Switzerland 1370–1380, Toruń in Poland 1390–1400, Drásov in Moravia approx. 1370). Many wall paintings of the Visitation scene that include a depiction of Jesus and John the Baptist in their mothers’ wombs can be found in monasteries or in places where there are justified grounds to assume that there was a monastery involved in creating the painting’s iconographic programme. Were there any such ties in the case of Ochtiná and Koceľovce? Here a connection to the spirituality of the Franciscans has been identified in the wall paintings: Katarína Biathová has pointed out how expansive the scenes are and the elaborate depiction of the events of Easter week, while, similarly, Mária Prokopp has noted evidence of Franciscan mysticism in the Passion cycles and believes that there were members of this order who were priests in both villages. An intermediary role was likely played by the Franciscan monastery in nearby Kameňany (Kövi) that was destroyed during the incursions of the Hussites, the existence of which is only documented in reports from the second half of the 14th century.

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Jana Zapletalová

Saly terreny zámku v Kroměříži a návrhy soch pro Podzámeckou zahradu

The Sala Terrena Rooms in Kroměříž Castle and the Designs for the Sculptures in the Castle Garden

pp. 269–262

The interior decorations in the sala terrena rooms in Kroměříž Castle were created over a short period based on concept by Martin Antonín Lublinský (1636–1690) and they are without question one of the most important works of artistic heritage from the late 17th century in Moravia. The decorative work was done by top artists from the Lombardy-Ticino lake region and Lublinský was given this project by Olomouc Bishop Karl II von Liechtenstein-Castelcorn (1624–1695). This article presents several new findings on this work. It proposes a new dating of the frescoes in the three main halls that were painted by Paolo Pagani (1655–1716), which until now were believed to be the first work Pagani did in Moravia, but were evidently created shortly before the bishop’s death in 1695. The major part of the article focuses on the discovery of reproductions of hitherto unknown drawings and writings by Martin Antonín Lublinský in the collection of the archivist Alois Richter (1884–1958). As well as a valuable plan of the western hall indicating the location of the frescoes and of marble busts by Tommaso Rues (1636–1703) and individual life-size sculptures carved by an unknown artist, this collection of archive papers includes a description of the sculptural decorations of the western hall. The collection also includes previsously unknown drawings of Ceres and Pan for Sala Terrena and another seven drawings in which nineteen figures for the decorations for the Castle garden are depicted. The themes chosen for the central section of the garden parterre were that of a member of the Marcomanni tribe killing one of the Quadi and eight personifications of  major Moravian rivers. There were also designs for creating personifications of the senses and various human attributes. Owing to a lack of sources it is also impossible to confirm whether the sculptures in these newly discovered designs by Lublinský were ever created or whether they remained alternative options for the decorations submitted to the client, but which today also provide evidence of the rich imaginative work of the artist.

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Martina Koukalová

„Mám vám pověděti své dojmy z Moskvy a Leningradu“. Z cesty architekta Ladislava Machoně do SSSR

‘I’m to tell you about my impressions of Moscow and Leningrad’. Architect Ladislav Machoň’s trip to the USSR

pp. 283–292

The interest of the left-wing avant-garde in political and social developments in the Soviet Union reached a height in the first half of the 1930s. While in Czechoslovakia the building industry had almost come to a halt under the effects of the international economic crisis, the Soviet Union was experiencing an unprecedented architectural boom. However, only a handful of Czechs architects ever travelled for study or business purposes to the USSR because of the time, money, and bureaucracy involved in doing so, and only some of them wrote about their observations and experiences. A preserved copy of a lecture by architect Ladislav Machoň (1888–1973), who visited the Soviet Union in late April and early May 1932, is a revelation in that Machoň was not a part of the avant-garde but belonged rather to the older generation of students of Jan Kotěra. His visit to the USSR was organised by the Russian travel office Inturist, which, among other objectives, to promote the country in the West arranged carefully planned and quite full programmes for its clients. Machoň‘s observations from his trip reflect the fact that this was a tourist trip and that he spent only a few days in Moscow and Leningrad. The lecture is more form of travel writing than a scholarly piece of work, which is also apparent in the colloquial style of language and the fact that the author devotes considerable space to describing historical monuments. Like other contemporary architects he relates in detail the journey by train, border crossings, and everyday life in the streets, which showed the contradictory nature of the information about the USSR being published in the contemporary right-wing and left-wing press. Machoň does not hide his admiration for the great number of newly built buildings, but he is critical of the execution of the construction work and the quality of the architectural designs.

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Kateřina Horníčková

Milena Bartlová, Pravda zvítězila: Výtvarné umění a husitství 1380–1490

pp. 293–295

Ondřej Jakubec

Andrea Steckerová — Štěpán Vácha (edd.), Vznešenost & zbožnost. Barokní umění na Plzeňsku a v západních Čechách

pp. 296–299

Nina Stainer

Tomáš Hladík, Sochařská dílna období baroka ve střední Evropě. Od návrhu k provedení / Die Bildhauerwerkstatt der Barockzeit in Mitteleuropa. Vom Entwurf zur Ausführung 

pp. 300–302

Marie Rakušanová

Karen L. Carter — Susan Waller (edd.), Foreign Artists and Communities in Modern Paris, 1870–1914. Strangers in Paradise

pp. 302–308

Petr Ingerle

Hana Rousová, Abstrakce mezi centry modernity 1918–1950. Nejen o vztazích volného a užitého umění

pp. 308–310

Milan Pech

Zora Rusinová, Súdružka moja vlasť. Vizuálna kultúra obdobia stalinizmu na Slovensku

pp. 311–313


pp. 314–317

Acquisitions of Art History Sources

pp. 318–320

Česká resumé / English Summaries

pp. 321–326