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6/2014

Articles

Eva Skopalová

The Mantegna Tarocchi and the View of the World in Northern Italy in the 15th Century

Tzv. Mantegnův tarot  a vize světa v 15. století v severní Itálii

pp. 502-515

The So-Called Mantegna Tarocchi is the name given to a set of fifty early Renaissance engravings that originated around the year 1465 in northern Italy. Two versions of the complete set were created by two different artists ten years apart and these are referred to separately as the E-series and the S-series. The term ‘Mategna Tarrochi’ is today used purely out of convention, as is the word ‘tarot’. The idea for the series was probably devised by Nicholas of Cusa, Pope Pius II, and Cardinal Bessarion, who invented the game during the Council of Mantua (1459–1460). Nicholas of Cusa very like combined the ideas of Raymond Lull with a religious game. During the council they created a kind of instructional game that describes the world. With considerable exaggeration it could be said that they created a game about ‘The Government of the World’ as a new kind of Biblia pauperum. Both meant to provide illiterate persons with instruction in complicated cosmological subjects. The cards are hierarchically divided into sets of ten labelled with letters (E, D, C, B, A) and the complete set is numbered from 1 to 50. In reference to Lull’s ideas, it is possible to create various combinations of the cards in horizontal and vertical rows. Lull formulated the combinations in his Ars magna as a perfect philosophical language, which he used during his missionary work. Nicholas of Cusa was in a similar situation when he began dealing with the problem of Ottoman Turks in 1453. It was important to visually show all possible modes of Christian reality. Raymond Lull created a universal system that could be communicated from one language to another and would be intelligible even to the illiterate. An argument in support of the claim that the cards reflect the influence of Raymond Lull and incorporate his combinatory methods towards a didactic function and as an instrument of faith is that a variation on the Mantegna Tarocchi made its way into another game called Laberinto (ca. 1610–1616, Andrea Ghisi). The Mantegna Tarocchi are part secular card game (Laberinto) and part a depiction of the world as God’s creation. 

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Tomáš Murár

‘The Entertainment of His Most Excellent Majestie Charles II’: Royalty Representation and its Visualization in a Festival Book by John Ogilby and Wenceslaus Hollar

„The Entertainment of His Most Excellent Majestie Charles II”. Královská reprezentace a její vizualizace ve festivalové knize od Johna Ogilbyho a Václava Hollara

pp. 516-528

This article is focused on mediality and the representation of a historical event through artistic instruments and tactics in art form. The record the article examines is the official festival book devoted to the processions and coronation of King Charles II of England, created by John Ogilby (1600–1676), accompanied by a description of the coronation by Elias Ashmole (1617–1692) and prints by Wenceslaus Hollar (1600–1677), and published in 1662. In 1660 Charles II reclaimed the English throne, lost by his father Charles I in 1648. After three civil wars and the unexpected death of Oliver Cromwell, Parliament decided that to preserve peace and order in England the best thing to do would be to recall the king from his exile in the Netherlands. Charles II became one of only a few rulers in early modern history to have his power and future reign taken from him in a bloody revolution and then have it returned to him. An important element of his triumphal return were the celebrations of his coronation on 22 and 23 April 1661 in London. A royal celebration can be regarded as a ‘representative spectacle’, an instrument for making a mass impression on the people and thereby demonstrating the power of a monarch over the land and in politics. This article also looks at the issue of artistic mediality and how a work of art can be interpreted by comparing it to the event it mediates and by comparing different artistic representations of an event, for instance by comparing text and image. The author draws on the theories of Louis Marin and Ernst Kantorowicz and the thoughts of Guy Debord. Their writings offer inspiration for a particular interpretation of the festival book, wherein the festival itself is secondary while the key function of the festival, representation through the spectacle of power and the representation of that spectacle in art form, is assumed by the festival book. The event becomes merely the basis for fulfilling the primarily purpose of the coronation, which is its representation in text and image. nd part a depiction of the world as God’s creation.

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Pavla Machalíková

Sacred Image in Bohemia in the First Third of the Nineteenth Century

Kultovní obraz v Čechách v první třetině 19. století

pp. 529-551

The creation, theory, and reception of religious images in modern European art after 1800 form a frequent topic in the study of 19th-century painting and of reflections on religious art and its relationship to the modern concept of art and modern theories of the image. This article looks at two paintings dating from around the year 1823 – Madonna Adoring the Child by František Tkadlík and Madonna Immaculata by Joseph Führich – and examines their significance in relation to the concept of scared and modern art in early 19th-century Bohemia. Both works had a clearly defined function: they were commissioned as altar paintings and the first of them was first exhibited alongside other works of modern art (at a public exhibition). Both artists drew on traditional (and amongst devotional prints widespread) types of Marian images and employed their general intelligibility towards creating their own unique and wholly modern works. Early 19th-century religious painting exemplifies the fusion of artistic and aesthetic qualities on the one hand and criteria relating to the evaluation of an image from the perspective of its liturgical function and effect on the other. At a time when the traditional division of artistic categories was waning and new ideas were forming about art genres and institutions and artists themselves, devotional images, which were traditional liturgical, not aesthetic, artefacts, became the centre of interest for some theorists and artists as representing an ideal example of an image created out of an inspired vision rather than on the basis of some refined literary model or the principles of high art. This capacity for an internal vision on the one hand and for translating that vision clearly by artistic means of expression on the other became one of the most highly valued qualities of modern artistry. festival book. The event becomes merely the basis for fulfilling the primarily purpose of the coronation, which is its representation in text and image. nd part a depiction of the world as God’s creation.

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Archives

Tomáš Jirsa

Živá tkáň uměleckého díla. Východiska a ozvuky biologie umění Wladimira Weidlého

Living Tissue of a Work of Art. Sources and Echoes of Wladimir Weidlé`s Biology of Art

pp. 552-555

This article, in the form of a foreword, discusses Wladimir Weidlé’s seminal essay from 1957 ‘Biologie de l’art’, which despite the strong response it prompted in professional circles when it was published has almost been forgotten today. Although its central premise is the empirically demonstrable analogy between forms of art and the tissue of living organisms, the essay is more than just a synthesis of aesthetic and biological thought, supreme examples of which emerged in Antiquity, the Enlightenment, and under Romanticism. It also augurs the rise of many other theoretical developments in the decades that followed its publication – for example the ‘diagonal science’ of Roger Caillois or contemporary neuro-aesthetics. After introducing the reader to the main works and professional activity of Weidlé, this article focuses on identifying the conscious sources of Weidlé’s line of argument, which can be described as a ‘metabiology of art’, and which has its roots in the work of Aristotle, the pioneer of hylomorphism. The author above all traces the foundations and implications of Weidlé’s theory, which must be considered in connection with the notion of a fundamental filiation between live nature and art forms. This is strikingly similar to Goethe’s dynamic concept of morphology, which is not so much focused on natural objects themselves as on the processes by which they constantly change. The author therefore here looks at two different offshoots of this idea: Rudolf Steiner’s application of Goethe’s theory to the study of the visual and dramatic arts, and Russian formalism, which strove for a genre theory of the literary work modelled on biology. The approaches and concepts that resonated most, however, lie in Henri Focillon’s anti-deterministic concept of the art form as a living, self-reproducing creation, in Henri Bergson’s creative principle of ‘élan vital’, and in the thought of George Kubler, who around the same time as Weidlé was discussing both biological metaphor in relation to the history of things, and temporality in the relationship between the original and a copy. In conclusion, the author sheds light on a parallel with the work of zoologist Adolf Portmann, who shared Weidlé’s focus on purposeless diversity and excess, which is intrinsic to both art and nature. 

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Wladimir Weidlé

Biologie umění

Biology of Art

pp. 556-562

Reviews

Arthur Saliger

Ivo Hlobil – Jana Hrbáčová (edd.), Gotické madony na lvu / Gotische Löwenmadonnen. Splendor et Virtus Reginae Coeli

pp. 563-566

Ivo Hlobil

Jan Royt, Mistr Třeboňského oltáře

pp. 567-569

Radka Miltová

Michal Šroněk, De sacris imaginibus. Patroni, malíři a obrazy předbělohorské Prahy

pp. 570-571

Markéta Theinhardtová

Roman Prahl a Petr Šámal, Umění jako dekorace a symbol. Výzdoba reprezentačních staveb Prahy v éře historismu, secese a moderny

pp. 572-573

Martin Charvát

Karel Srp (ed.), Jan Zrzavý. Božská hra

pp. 573-576

Lenka Bydžovská

Derek Sayer, Prague, Capital of the Twentieth Century: A Surrealist History

pp. 576-578

Annotations

pp. 579-582

Acquisitions of Art History Sources

pp. 583-585

Česká resumé / English Summaries

pp. 586-589

Obsah LXII. ročníku Umění/Art / Contents of the 62th Volume of Umění/Art

pp. 590-591